Analytical technique

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Analytical technique is a method used to determine a chemical or physical property of a chemical substance, chemical element, or mixture.[1] There is a wide variety of techniques used for analysis, from simple weighing to advanced techniques using highly specialized instrumentation.

Classical methods of analysis[edit]

Classical analysis methods involve basic analytical methods widely used in laboratories. Gravimetric analysis measures the weight of the sample. Titrimetry is a family of techniques used to determine the concentration of an analyte.[2]

Spectrochemical analysis[edit]

Spectrometer can determine chemical composition through its measure of spectrums. The common spectrometer used in analytical chemistry is Mass spectrometry. In a mass spectrometer, a small amount of sample is ionized and converted to gaseous ions, where they are separated and analyzed according to their mass-to-charge ratios.[2]

NMR Spectroscopy involves exciting a NMR-active sample and then measuring the effects of this magnetic excitation. From this, the bonds present in a sample can be determined.

Electroanalytical analysis[edit]

Electroanalytical methods utilize the potential or current of a electrochemical cell. The three main sections of this type of analysis are potentiometry, coulometry and voltammetry. Potentiometry measures the cell's potential, coulometry measures the cell's current, and voltammetry measures the change in current when cell potential changes.[3][4]


Chromatography separates the analyte from the rest of the sample so that it may be measured without interference from other compounds.[2] There are different types of chromatography that differ from the media they use to separate the analyte and the sample.[5] In Thin-layer chromatography, the analyte mixture moves up and separates along the coated sheet under the volatile mobile phase. In Gas chromatography, gas separates the volatile analytes. A common method for chromatography using liquid as a mobile phase is High-performance liquid chromatography.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Analytical technique". Archived from the original on 2013-03-17. Retrieved 2013-01-17.
  2. ^ a b c Douglas A. Skoog; Stanley R. Crouch (2014). Fundamentals of analytical chemistry (Ninth ed.). Belmont, CA. ISBN 978-0-495-55828-6. OCLC 824171785.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  3. ^ Skoog, Douglas A.; Donald M. West; F. James Holler (1996). Fundamentals of analytical chemistry (7th ed.). Fort Worth: Saunders College Pub. ISBN 0-03-005938-0. OCLC 33112372.
  4. ^ Bard, Allen J.; Larry R. Faulkner (2001). Electrochemical methods : fundamentals and applications (Second ed.). Hoboken, NJ. ISBN 0-471-04372-9. OCLC 43859504.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  5. ^ Poole, C. F. (2000-01-01), "CHROMATOGRAPHY", in Wilson, Ian D. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Separation Science, Oxford: Academic Press, pp. 40–64, ISBN 978-0-12-226770-3, retrieved 2022-10-07